Windtech was commissioned by Health Infrastructure NSW and Multiplex to undertake a holistic assessment to ensure the operational integrity of the helipad infrastructure for the John Hunter Health and Innovation Precinct (JHHIP), Newcastle. To meet this operational need, Windtech conducted the following studies:

Through “Desktop” analysis, we were able to assess the likely impact of the redevelopment of the John Hunter Health and Innovation Precinct (JHHIP), located in Newcastle, on the local wind environment at the critical outdoor areas within and around the subject site, the wind entry effects, and the effect of the helicopter travelling to and from the helipads.

Furthermore, our team conducted detailed evaluations of wind speed and turbulence specific to the Acute Services Building Helipad, identifying potential hazards and implementing tailored strategies to mitigate risks and ensure safer and effective aircraft operations.

Implementing CFD modelling methodologies, Windtech conducted an Air Quality/Pollution Dispersion Study, to analyse the dispersion patterns of helicopter exhaust plumes onto the ASB Building air intakes. This comprehensive assessment assessed the effect of the proposed design on the spread of NOX compounds on and around the site. The cumulative directionally weighted average of the NOX results showed no exceedance at the HVAC intakes of the proposed development. Moderately strong odours were predicted in certain areas and various mitigation treatments were recommended.

Image 1.1 Cumulative NOX Contours weighted by frequency of occurrence of each wind direction, Plan View

Figure 1: Cumulative NOX Contours weighted by frequency of occurrence of each wind direction, Plan View

Cumulative NOX Contours weighted by frequency of occurrence of each wind direction, Eastern Aspect

Figure 2: Cumulative NOX Contours weighted by frequency of occurrence of each wind direction, Eastern Aspect

Image 1 CO Air Quality Category

Figure 3: CO Air Quality Category contours. Cumulative CO Contours weighted by frequency of occurrence of each wind direction. Contours are plotted 1.5m from ground (Left) and 1.5m from floor level of the terraces (Right)

Windtech Consultants are committed to providing accurate and reliable modelling to guide the design of helipads to enable safe and functional operation.

If you are working on any projects that could benefit from the capabilities presented in this article, please reach out to our regional offices Sydney & Melbourne, Australia, London, UK, Mumbai, India. New York & Miami, USA, Dubai, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Toronto, Canada we guarantee to support you wherever you are based.

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In the realm of architecture and urban planning, the challenges posed by wind-driven rain (WDR) are often underestimated, leading to significant form and aesthetic consequences for buildings. This article delves into the critical role of Windtech’s Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Wind Driven Rain studies in addressing these challenges, offering innovative solutions that revolutionize building design and occupant comfort.

The Overlooked Challenge of Wind-Driven Rain

The issues arising from neglecting WDR in architectural design are profound. Inadequate consideration of WDR can result in water infiltration, causing damage to building materials, building contents as well as infrastructure such as lifts and escalators. This results in reduced lifespan of structures, and increased maintenance costs. Moreover, it can significantly impact the comfort and well-being of occupants, especially in outdoor communal spaces as well as the viability of retail tenancies.

The Power of CFD in WDR Analysis

Windtech utilises advanced Computational Fluid Dynamics modelling to accurately simulate the complex interactions between wind, rain, and architectural structures. This technology allows for precise modeling of rain patterns and their impact on buildings under varied wind conditions. By employing CFD, architects and planners can pre-emptively identify potential problem areas in building designs.

Assessing Wind-Driven Rain Effects

Windtech’s CFD studies include accounting for wind speed, wind direction, rain intensity, and the specific architectural features of a building. These elements are crucial in creating accurate models that predict how rain will interact with a structure, thereby enabling more informed design decisions. The key assessment points are as follows:

1. Areas of Concern: Areas on concern are identified and confirmed with the key stakeholders, these may include entrances, terraces, balconies and covered public spaces.

2. Climate analysis: A detailed statistical wind driven rain model is developed for the regions. This includes analysing the relationship between wind speed, wind direction, measured rainfall and rainfall intensity. This model is then refined to match wind conditions at the development site.

3. Simulation of WDR: The wind driven rain is simulated at the site. These simulations model the interaction between then wind and the rain. In these simulations a range of rain droplet sizes are included. The wind may significantly alter the raindrop trajectories, enabling rain to bypass traditional barriers such as overhangs and awnings. Wind can drive rain horizontally (or even upwards, depending on the wind’s velocity and direction) into seemingly protected areas like covered terraces and balconies.

4. Visualizing Wetted Surface Area: The report presents cumulative Wetted Surface Area contours to visualize surface wetting and rain accumulation under canopies and awnings at ground level under different wind conditions. These figures are easy to interpret and summaries the results of multiple simulations.

5. Mitigations Measures: If required mitigation measures can be designed and tested using these results

Case Study: One Holland Village, Singapore

The Windtech CFD Wind Driven Rain Study for the One Holland Village project in Singapore provides a detailed analysis of the effects of wind-driven rain on the development. The study utilized Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to model and analyze the impact of rain in combination with various wind directions on the structure. Key findings from the study include:

1. Lower Levels Analysis (Levels 1 to 4): The study found that wind-driven rain would be concentrated in sections lacking local shading or overhangs. Areas fully exposed were likely to see moderate rain accumulation, with variations across different wind directions.

2. Elevated Terraces Analysis (Levels 20 and 33): Rain accumulation levels at elevated terraces were strongly correlated with wind direction. The study provided detailed insights into how different areas of these terraces would be affected by rain under various wind conditions.

To address these issues, the study recommended design modifications. These included the implementation of architectural features such as overhangs, screens, or shelters in areas where rain accumulation was predicted to be high. By incorporating these elements, the design aimed to reduce rain penetration into vulnerable areas, thus enhancing the overall functionality and comfort of the building’s spaces. This approach exemplifies how targeted design interventions, informed by
detailed CFD analysis, can effectively mitigate wind-driven rain impacts in urban structures.

Windtech’s Unique Approach

In the field of wind-driven rain (WDR) assessment, Windtech sets itself apart with a distinctive performance-based approach. This method is a testament to our commitment to leveraging cutting-edge technology and research in the CFD industry. At Windtech, we utilize the latest published methods and incorporate our own proprietary techniques and tools, ensuring our analysis aligns with current world best practices.

The cornerstone of our methodology is the integration of comprehensive environmental data, advanced CFD modeling, and our proprietary algorithms. This combination enables us to accurately simulate real-world scenarios, providing detailed insights into potential WDR impacts. Our approach goes beyond mere prediction; it offers actionable recommendations for design modifications that can effectively mitigate WDR effects.

Concluding Thoughts

Incorporating Windtech’s CFD Wind Driven Rain Study into the design process brings numerous benefits. It leads to structures that are not only visually appealing but also functionally robust against the challenges of wind-driven rain. This approach ensures the longevity of buildings, enhances the comfort of occupants, and promotes sustainable architectural practices.

In conclusion, the Windtech CFD Wind Driven Rain Study is an indispensable tool in modern architecture, offering innovative solutions to the challenges faced in urban environments, particularly in regions prone to intense and frequent rainfall. By embracing such advanced methodologies, Windtech positions itself at the forefront of wind engineering, setting a new standard in the design and sustainability of urban structures. This innovative approach not only addresses the immediate concerns related to WDR but also paves the way for future advancements in architectural resilience and sustainability.

From my student life experience, I know the struggle of spending countless hours on a single paper only to find it’s not meeting the standards. But what if there was another way to streamline the writing process? Enter the paper typer tool, a groundbreaking platform designed to support in producing high-quality academic work with ease and efficiency.

Which Tools Does Paper Helper Service Offer?

When I decided to do my own research on effective writing aids, I discovered the paper typer service. This platform is a comprehensive suite designed to facilitate various stages of the writing process. Firstly, the Advanced Grammar Checker goes beyond basic corrections, providing detailed feedback on sentence structure and style, which is crucial for polishing your drafts. Secondly, the Plagiarism Detector ensures originality, scanning your work against extensive databases to guarantee the uniqueness of your paper.

Moreover, the platform includes a Citation Wizard that supports all major referencing styles, from APA to Harvard, making the often tedious task of citation swift and accurate. These tools are integrated into a user-friendly interface, allowing easy access and smooth navigation, making it ideal for anyone looking to enhance their writing skills efficiently.

How Can Paper Generator Benefit You As a Student?

During my student life, I tried various methods to optimize my writing process, but none were as effective as the paper generator. This tool not only aids in generating well-structured drafts but also offers customized suggestions tailored to your specific academic needs. Whether you’re crafting a complex research paper or a simple essay, the platform provides a solid starting point by suggesting relevant topics and structuring your content coherently.

Additionally, the AI-driven process of the paper generator significantly reduces the time you spend on researching and formatting, allowing you to focus more on refining your arguments and enhancing your content. This tool is particularly beneficial for those juggling multiple assignments, as it helps manage workload efficiently, ensuring you meet all your academic deadlines without compromising the quality of your papers.

Final Thoughts

In conclusion, if you’re looking to elevate your academic writing and simplify the complexities of the writing process, the paper typer tool is an invaluable resource. With its comprehensive suite of writing aids, it provides a robust solution for students aiming to enhance their academic performance. As someone who has navigated the challenges of student life, I can recommend this tool as a reliable companion in your educational journey. Give it a try and see how it can transform your writing process!

Fish Market Rendering

Windtech has had the privilege to work collaboratively with prominent local architectural firm BVN in association with Danish architectural firm 3XN, on the iconic flagship project that is the New Sydney Fish Market. Windtech also worked closely with the project’s principal contractor, Multiplex through detailed design process.  The NSW Government is delivering a new Sydney Fish Market which will retain its authentic experience and strengthen its position as one of Australia’s leading tourist destinations.

Windtech was appointed to conduct extensive wind engineering services on the $750 million project from mid 2017 to mid 2023. This monumental development, located in the Blackwattle Bay precinct, will deliver over 6,000 square meters of new public open space within a 4-storey market hall along with restaurants, cafés, bars, fishmongers, specialty food retailers and other world-class amenities and attractions, which will be joining Sydney’s renowned harbourside. The New Sydney Fish Market not only represents a significant step forward in the realm of modern seafood commerce but also incorporates the latest technological advances. Throughout its construction, this monumental development has generated more than 700 jobs, and upon becoming fully operational, it is estimated to sustain an additional 700+ jobs, contributing to both economic growth and the infusion of advanced technology into the industry.

New Sydney Fish Market Internal and External Rendering

Figure 1: Aerial and Internal perspectives of the New Sydney Fish Market

The most noticeable feature of this building is undoubtedly the distinctive wave-shaped and scale-patterned roof. During the Design Development phase, Windtech was commissioned to conduct a Long Span Roof Structural Loads Study to accurately determine the wind loads on both the cladding and the loads on the structure. This required careful consideration of the effect of the scales on the overall wind drag. Testing was performed at one of the 3 boundary layer wind tunnel facilities, located at Windtech’s global head office in Sydney, using a detailed 3D printed 1:300 scale model of the development. From conducting this study it was possible to provide detailed and accurate design pressures for each facet of the building envelope as well as load cases in the form of net panel pressures (including 42 panels for the roof), which is not possible using wind loading standards for such an unusual building forms.

Maximum and Minimum Roof Pressure

Figure 2: Contours of Maximum (LHS) and Minimum (RHS) net roof pressures.

A detailed wind environment study was undertaken for the various outdoor areas as well as an assessment of the Universal Thermal Comfort Index (UTCI) for some critical outdoor spaces, which provides a more wholistic assessment of the outdoor comfort, accounting for local wind speeds, temperature, humidity, and solar radiation.

A study was also undertaken to assess the impact of wind loads on two types of door closers by applying incremental wind loads to the proposed pivot door system, within our wind tunnel. Windtech also carried out a Solar Reflectivity Study to assess the potential glare impact from the structure including reflections from the faceted roof.

Fish Market Wind Tunnel Model.

Figure 3: Windtech’s wind tunnel study model


Motion Dampers for Tall Building


In today’s dynamic urban landscape, the demand for tall buildings is on the rise, driven by factors such as population growth and the need for sustainable urban development. As cities across the world reach for the sky, engineers and architects are faced with the challenge of not only designing structures that meet stringent safety standards but also ensuring that occupants experience a comfortable environment.

One crucial aspect that comes into play in the design of tall buildings is the consideration of wind-induced motion. In recent times, fire hydrant tanks have emerged as an important part of performance-based fire design, particularly for buildings exceeding 135 meters in height – according to the Australian building Code (NCC 2022) buildings above this height are not amenable to the deemed to satisfy provisions in AS 2118 due to higher system pressure requirements. 

Potential Dual Role of Fire Hydrant Tanks:

Beyond their primary function in fire safety, fire hydrant tanks have revealed an unexpected yet highly valuable secondary role in enhancing building comfort. Tall structures, while marvels of modern engineering, can be susceptible to wind-induced motion. Just as individuals have varying thresholds for experiencing motion sickness on a ferry, the sensitivity to building motion varies widely. While established criteria exist for acceptable building acceleration levels, it’s important to acknowledge that there will always be occupants who may feel uncomfortable, even within these prescribed limits. Adapting the same fire hydrant tanks to also serve as tuned liquid motion dampers (TLDs) is a very cost-effective way of accommodating these more sensitive occupants even where the building accelerations happen to meet the prescribed criteria. 

Tuned Liquid Dampers: A Cost-Effective Innovation:

Conventional methods of stiffening a building, while effective in some cases, can be costly and may inadvertently exacerbate sensitivity to motion. Increasing structural rigidity can bring the natural frequency closer to the peak of the human body’s response spectrum, potentially heightening sensitivity to motion. This is where TLDs emerge as a cost-effective solution.

Unlike traditional approaches, tuned liquid dampers operate by reducing building motion without the need for increased structural stiffness. This innovative technique not only proves highly effective but is also remarkably cost-effective, especially when integrated with an existing fire hydrant tank.

Customization and Optimization:

The engineers at Windtech Consultants have honed the art of tailoring fire hydrant tanks to harmonize seamlessly with a building’s natural frequency. This optimization enhances their efficiency as tuned liquid dampers. Moreover, Windtech has developed ingenious energy dissipation techniques within these tanks, incurring minimal additional costs.

Practical Considerations: Reinforced Concrete Tanks:

From a logistical perspective, clients often lean towards reinforced concrete tanks. This choice not only sidesteps extended lead times but also avoids the associated expenses of alternative fabrication methods. Windtech’s expertise in streamlining damper designs during peer reviews has yielded substantial cost savings.

The engineers at Windtech have been able to develop the most cost-effective forms of energy dissipation devices within these tanks at negligible cost. From a logistic standpoint our clients tend to opt for a reinforced concrete tank to avoid the long lead times and costs associated with other fabrication methods such as metal plates or GRC panels. 

Real-World Savings: Case Studies:

Whenever we are asked to peer review a damper design, we tend to be able to simplify the design to achieve significant cost saving. This especially happens when we are dealing with a regular tall building where a Tuned Mass Damper or some proprietary system is proposed – in these cases many millions of dollars can be saved. Even for a a recent case where a TLD damper was already proposed, we were able to significantly simplify the design of the TLD damper to achieve a staggering USD$300,000 in savings. In another instance, the additional cost of converting a fire hydrant tank into a tuned liquid damper amounted to as little as USD$50,000. At that price, it would make sense to include such a measure even if the building acceleration is just inside the target criterion, given the broad range of sensitivity of humans to building motion.

Motion Dampers for Tall Building

Figure 1. Measuring Dynamic Properties of The42, Kolkata, Dattatreya Das (Left), Aaron Lefcovitch (Right)

Conclusion: Pioneering a New Era in Building Design

As cities continue their upward trajectory, the integration of fire hydrant tanks as tuned liquid dampers represents a significant advancement in tall building design. By addressing both fire safety and building comfort in a synergistic manner, engineers and architects are ushering in a new era of innovative and cost-effective solutions.

In this rapidly evolving field, Windtech Consultants stands at the forefront, offering tailored expertise to ensure that tall structures not only reach for the sky but also provide a safe and comfortable environment for their occupants.

If you are working on any projects that could benefit from the capabilities presented in this article, please reach out to our regional offices Sydney & Melbourne, Australia, London, UK, and Mumbai, India. New York & Miami, USA, Toronto, Canada, DubaiHong Kong & Singapore, we guarantee to support you wherever you are based.

To get regular updates on news and events, please follow us on our LinkedIn page.